Types of Training Exercises
Each question must be at least 2 paragraph.COLLAPSESelecting Training ExercisesIt is vitally important to find out about deficiencies in emergency response plans before an incident rather than after one. Yet the importance of training and exercising is sometimes overlooked—it can be expensive to hold realistic exercises, difficult to get everyone to attend, and hard to fit into already packed schedules. Training and exercises, however, are vital and need to be consistently done.Exercises can take many forms, and an emergency manager needs to consider a number of variables such as funding, logistics, levels of participation, and participant roles before selecting the appropriate type of exercise. Selection of the appropriate method also might depend on the specific element of the response plan that is being tested.For this Discussion, you are responsible for developing either table-top or actual training exercises for your Final Projectcommunity..________________________________________Question 1: brief explanation of the type of training exercises you would select for your Final Project community, and justify your selection. Then describe the strengths and limitations of the type of training exercises you selected. Finally, explain the value of no-notice training exercises.Discussion: Decision Making in Mitigation StrategiesAs mentioned in Week 3, mitigation strategies are short- or long-term measures to eliminate or significantly reduce the impact of a potential hazard. Although mitigation activities can reduce or eliminate threats, mitigation can create new hazards or increase the impact of certain types of events. Mitigation can also create a false sense of safety. For example, builders might be tempted to build in a flood plain if they think a levee or dam will protect the structures from flood waters.Equity issues can surface when approaching mitigation activities. For example, mitigation is often expensive and it can be difficult to garner funding for low socioeconomic areas that have less political influence and economic value. There are also social concerns that need to be considered. What assets in a community should be protected? What if flood plain buyouts consist of poor areas or neighborhoods? Is there another motive behind the buyout? Such questions need to be approached by emergency managers and communities with both sensitivity and a proper understanding of all impacts of mitigation. Because of the difficult decisions that need to be made when planning mitigation activities, it is important that individuals are motivated to advocate for needed mitigation in their own communities.For this Discussion, view the media in this week’s Learning Resources and review the scenario provided below. Consider the mitigation approach you might take. Also think about how you might motivate the community to take action to mitigate for future disasters.Scenario: A community needs to increase its tax base by encouraging the growth of business. The area of land selected for development is subject to 100-year floods (i.e., one event occurring within 100 years). You, as the emergency manager, have been asked to address the city council about possible hazard mitigation strategies.Question 2: brief explanation of mitigation strategies you might use to reduce loss of life, injuries, and destruction of property in the scenario you selected. Then explain your rationale for selecting those strategies. Finally, explain how you might motivate the community in the scenario to take appropriate action to advocate for mitigation from future disasters.Discussion: What Makes a Population Vulnerable toDisasters?Although disasters are generally random, the impact of an event can vary in severity depending on a variety of social factors. An individual’s socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, language limitations, and even gender can play a role in the ability to respond to and recover from an incident. In emergency management, individuals who face additional challenges throughout the disaster cycle are referred to as “vulnerable populations,” “at risk populations,” or “special populations.” Special populations may include, but are not limited to, the following groups:• Individuals with disabilities• Seniors• Individuals with hearing or visual impairments• Pregnant women• Children• Individuals with special medical requirements• Individuals with petsFor this Discussion, view the media Special Populations located in this week’s resources, and conduct research on issues related to special populations during disasters. Also explore strategies to help reduce vulnerabilities of special populations duringdisasters.Question 3: description of two special populations and explain why they are especially vulnerable during disasters. Then explain two strategies for each special population to help reduce theirulnerabilities.Discussion: Federally Designed Standards for Emergency Management FrameworkPolitical scientists use a term called “coercive federalism” to describe how the federal government uses federal funds to entice states unilaterally to enact certain policies. For example, in order to be eligible for federal highway funds, states have had to enact seatbelt laws and use certain speed limits. Similarly, the federal government uses adherence to emergency management standards as a prerequisite for federal funds. The benefits of these standards, however, have been debated. State and local approaches are uniquely developed at the state and local levels to accommodate needs at state and local levels.For this Discussion, you examine federal and local standards and approaches to emergency management. Also, consider how the two might be integrated.Question 4: brief explanation of the benefits and limitations of federal standards for an emergency management framework. Then explain benefits and limitations of local approaches to emergency management. Finally, explain how these two approaches might be reconciled to be most effective.