Final Assignment Paper for Parameters of Social Research on Sociology Answer all 4 questions in the paper of final assignment questions and instructions. In the paper, you should carefully answer all questions based on tables and statistical figures, and data. Economists and political scientists sometimes debate the merits of economic change versus political change in the development of gender equality in a given country (sociologists hold the coats). Economists would argue that economic development increases opportunities to make money, increases incomes themselves and thus open up opportunities for all. Economists would argue that there are positive effects of economic development; these are seen through a direct (positive) effect of economic development on gender equality and indirect (positive) effects of economic development on mass media exposure, which in turn increases gender equality. People with more money can afford to buy more mass media products. Economists also argue that in the long run, economic development decreases income inequality; this too would eventually increase gender equality, as income inequality is positively related in gender inequality. Equal income equals equal treatment, according to this position. Political scientists have countered that the chief requirement for gender equality is the presence of democratic institutions (i.e., elected chief executive; elected representatives; checks and balances between executive branch and legislative branch; etc.). They argue that gender equality occurs largely through direct effects (positive) of democratic institutions on gender equality; but argue that there are also positive effects of political institutions on the availability of mass media outlets and that these outlets will reflect more diverse points of view. Democratic institutions also lead to lessened income inequality, according to this position. With an eye towards trumping the political scientists, economists would argue that only high income countries possess democratic institutions. Based on the path model and calculations of indirect effects, who is right? Are they both right; wrong? Be sure you discuss all main and all indirect effects in answering this question! Assume that an effect is + or – 0.15 is statistically significance. 2) . An investigator was interested in the relationship between the perception that drinking alcohol causes poor health and drinking behavior (amount of alcohol consumed). She hypothesized that the more the respondent perceived that drinking causes poor health, the lower amount of alcohol the respondent consumed. The table below expresses what she found. a. What was the total sample size of this study? b. Identify the independent, dependent and control variables. c. Correctly percentage each table. d. Calculated chi squared for each table: independent with dependent variable (control variable is ignored here)=l54.8. Independent variable with dependent variable controlling for the first category of the control variable=43.4; for the second category=98.0; for the third category=66.4. Based on the appropriate tabular chi squared for each table this size ( chi squared tabular =5.99), is the relationship between the independent and dependent variables significant? Is the relationship significant across the categories of the control variable? What can we conclude about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, with the results of the control variable analysis in mind? 3. We were interested in whether questions regarding were good measures of teaching their children how to deal with buying food and preparing food. I am sending you the SAS output with correlations plus Cronbach’s alpha. I have also have a second set of correlations regarding construct validation. Are the measures of teaching the children provide the level for Cronbach’s alpha?Next, I provided several hypotheses regarding measures that we might believe that measures are valid. 4. There is a heated debate over whether interviewers should conform to the principals of standardized interviewing in collecting survey data; some argue that greater freedom for interviewer probing/following up answers and re-wording questions to assist the respondents’ understanding of what is being asked should be allowed. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach; which approach is more promising re delivering valid, reliable, and accurate information? Why?