2 Short Essays: (1.5 pages) 1. Explain the difference between psychological egoism and ethical egoism. What are the two forms of psychological egoism? Why do they fail to refute morality or to provide a foundation for ethical egoism? Explain individual and personal ethical egotism. What are the problems with these forms? Why do you think universal ethical egoism is the most commonly held form of ethical egoism? What difficulties does this form present? Describe the advantages and disadvantages of ethical egoism. 2. Explain how Freud’s attack on Christianity developed from Marx’s and Nietzsche’s critiques. What does Freud mean by the word illusion? Are illusions always bad? Could Christianity and other forms of religion be good, helpful illusions? How would Nietzsche respond to your answer? Is the idea of God fundamentally sexist? How can you summarise the Buddhist view that religion does not require God? Long Essay: (3 pages) 1. What is Consciousness according to Descartes versus Freud? What is the philosophy of Dualism, and what critiques could you give it? What is radical behaviourism? Outline the various solutions to the mind-body problem (e.g., causal interactionism, parallelism, dual aspect theory, etc.) What is identity theory? What is functionalism, and what the myth of the computer?
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