Normal Cell Membra

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Normal Cell Membra

Normal Cell Membra

APA format, 300 words, references. I need the paper by 2-6-2018

Share an electrolyte imbalance case study from your practice or from the literature. 
In 1-2 paragraphs, summarize the case study. 
Then, talk about the clinical manifestations of the imbalance, the pathophysiology underlying the imbalance, normal cell membrane transport of the electrolyte(s), and any changes in cell membrane transport caused by the imbalance. 
What steps were taken to correct the electrolyte imbalance? 
Analyze the case study to see if there were any places where patient or staff education could have prevented the electrolyte imbalance.


Electrolyte Balance Is Critical


Electrolytes are essential for maintaining homeostasis inside the body. 
They play role in the regulation of cardiac and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen supply, acid-base balance, and other biological functions.


Electrolytes are vital because they are what cells (particularly neuron, heart, and muscle cells) need to maintain voltages across their cell membranes and to transfer electrical impulses (nerve impulses, muscle contractions) between themselves and to other cells.


Electrolyte imbalances can occur as result of excessive or insufficient consumption, as well as excessive or insufficient excretion of an electrolyte. 
Renal failure is the most common cause of electrolyte imbalances. 
The most serious electrolyte disorders involve changes in sodium, potassium, and/or calcium levels.


Other electrolyte imbalances are less prevalent, but they frequently occur in conjunction with significant electrolyte shifts. 
Chronic laxative misuse, as well as severe diarrhea or vomiting (gastroenteritis), can result in electrolyte imbalances and dehydration. 
People who suffer from bulimia or anorexia nervosa are more vulnerable to electrolyte imbalances.


The kidneys operate to maintain steady electrolyte concentrations in the blood despite changes in your body. 
For example, during strenuous activity, electrolytes, notably sodium and potassium, are lost through perspiration, and sweating might increase the requirement for electrolyte (salt) replacement. 
To maintain steady electrolyte concentrations in bodily fluids, these electrolytes must be replaced.




Dehydration can be classified into three types:


Hypotonicity or hyponatremicity (primarily loss of electrolytes, sodium in particular).


Hypertonicity or hypernatremicity (primarily loss of water).


Isotonicity or isonatremicity (an equal loss of water and electrolytes).


The most frequent type of dehydration in humans is isotonic (isonatraemic) dehydration, which basically corresponds to hypovolemia; nevertheless, distinguishing isotonic dehydration from hypotonic or hypertonic dehydration may be significant when treating persons with dehydration.


Physiologically, and contrary to popular belief, dehydration does not just indicate loss of water, as both water and solutes (mostly sodium) are often lost in nearly equal amounts due to the way they reside in the plasma. 
Intravascular water transfers to the extravascular space during hypotonic dehydration, exaggerating intravascular volume depletion for given quantity of total body water loss.


In hypotonic and hypertonic conditions, neurological problems might emerge. 
The former can cause convulsions, whereas the latter can cause osmotic cerebral edema if rehydrated quickly.


In more severe cases, dehydrated state is corrected by replenishing required water and electrolytes (through oral rehydration therapy or fluid replacement by intravenous therapy). 
Oral rehydration is the preferred treatment for mild dehydration because it is less uncomfortable, less intrusive, less expensive, and easier to administer. 
Isotonic or hypotonic solutions must be used for intravenous rehydration.

Required Readings

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

  • Chapter      31, “Child Psychiatry” (pp. 1279–1323)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

  • “Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders”
  • “Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical      Attention”
  • “Assessment Measures”
  • “Cultural Formulation”

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