# Informal Logic Questions

Read the essay at the link, and then in one file answer the 20 questions below as your personal final exam: https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/campuspress.yale.edu/dist/7/272/files/2019/06/joint-review.pdf Part I: The First Action of the Mind (Conceptualization) 1. Quote a sentence from the assigned essay in which a definition is given (citing the page number for your quotation). Is your chosen example a real or nominal definition? If it is real, then is it logical, causal, or descriptive? If it is logical, then distinguish both the genus and the essential difference. If it is causal, then distinguish whether there are formal, final, material, or efficient causes involved. If it is descriptive, then state whether it uses a property or an accident. Part II: The Second Action of the Mind (Judgment) 2. Quote a sentence from the assigned essay in which a universal affirmative Type A proposition is given (citing the page number for your quotation). Rewrite the proposition in your chosen example in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms. 3. For the Type A proposition in #2 above, state its contrary, its contradictory, and its subalternate (each in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms, and labelling each proposition Type as A, E, I, or O). 4. If the Type A proposition in #2 above is FALSE, then state whether its contrary is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; state whether its contradictory is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; and state whether its subalternate is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED. 5. Quote a sentence from the assigned essay in which a universal negative Type E proposition is given (citing the page number for your quotation). Rewrite the proposition in your chosen example in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms. 6. For the Type E proposition in #5 above, state: its contrary; its contradictory; and its subalternate (each in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms, and labelling each proposition Type as A, E, I, or O). 7. If the Type E proposition in #5 above is FALSE, then state: whether its contrary is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; state whether its contradictory is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; and state whether its subalternate is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED. 8. Quote a sentence from the assigned essay in which a particular affirmative Type I proposition is given (citing the page number for your quotation). Rewrite the proposition in your chosen example in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms. 9. For the Type I proposition in #8 above, state: its subcontrary; its contradictory; and its subimplicate (each in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms, and labelling each proposition Type as A, E, I, or O). 10. If the Type I proposition in #5 above is TRUE, then state: whether its contrary is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; state whether its contradictory is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; and state whether its subalternate is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED. 11. Quote a sentence from the assigned essay in which a particular negative Type O proposition is given (citing the page number for your quotation). Rewrite the proposition in your chosen example in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms. 12. For the Type O proposition in #8 above, state: its subcontrary; its contradictory; and its subimplicate (each in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms, and labelling each proposition Type as A, E, I, or O). 13. If the Type O proposition in #5 above is TRUE, then state: whether its contrary is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; state whether its contradictory is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED; and state whether its subalternate is TRUE, FALSE, or UNDETERMINED. 14. Write the inverse of the proposition in #2 above. Show all the steps involved in the inference. Write all propositions in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms. 15. Write the inverse of the proposition in #5 above. Show all the steps involved in the inference. Write all propositions in standard form, distinguishing the subject term from the predicate term by using single uppercase letters to define your terms. Part III: The Third Action of the Mind (Argument) 16. Quote a passage from the assigned essay in which you find a syllogism, an enthymeme, or an epicheirema (citing the page number for your quotation). Choose only one argument type. Rewrite each proposition in your chosen example in standard form, distinguishing the conclusion’s subject term from the conclusion’s predicate term, as well as the middle term(s), by using single uppercase letters to define your terms, and labelling each proposition Type as A, E, I, or O. Use square brackets to enclose any unspoken premises assumed in enthymematic reasoning, if applicable. 17. Analyze the argument in #16 above by checking it for validity and then stating whether it is VALID or INVALID. Prove your answer by drawing a Venn diagram for the argument, labeling it according to your analysis in #16 above. If the argument is INVALID, state each one of the four rules which the argument violates. If the argument is VALID, state whether or not it is SOUND, and why. 18. Quote another passage from the assigned essay (different from your example in #16) in which you find a syllogism, an enthymeme, or an epicheirema (citing the page number for your quotation). Choose only one. Rewrite each proposition in your chosen example in standard form, distinguishing the conclusion’s subject term from the conclusion’s predicate term, as well as the middle term(s), by using single uppercase letters to define your terms, and labelling each proposition Type as A, E, I, or O. Use square brackets to enclose any unspoken premises assumed in enthymematic reasoning, if applicable. If you wish, instead of citing another passage, you can paraphrase what you discern the main argument of the entire essay to be, by stating your interpretation as a syllogism, enthymeme, or epicheirema, and then formalizing that argument according to the preceding symbolization instructions for #18. 19. Analyze the argument in #18 above by checking it for validity and then stating whether it is VALID or INVALID. Prove your answer by drawing a Venn diagram for the argument, labeling it according to your analysis in #18 above. If the argument is INVALID, state each one of the four rules which the argument violates. If the argument is VALID, state whether or not it is SOUND, and why. 20. Quote a passage from the assigned essay in which you find a modus ponens argument, a modus tollens argument, a denying the antecedent fallacy, an affirming the consequent fallacy, a sorites, a hypothetical syllogism, a conjunctive syllogism, a disjunctive syllogism, a constructive dilemma, a destructive dilemma, or a reductio ad absurdum argument (citing the page number for your quotation). Choose only one argument type. Symbolize your chosen argument by using the techniques you learned in this course. State whether your chosen argument is VALID or INVALID. Is it also SOUND?