reply to the next 2 discussions from your peers, make sure you include at least one question on each discussion discussion 1 Motivating operation (MO) discriminative stimuli (SD) are similar in the sense that they both occur prior to a response and they both alter the frequency of behavior (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2020). There are two different types of MO’s: establishing operations and abolishing operations, with establishing operations the value of stimuli as a reinforcer is increased and with abolishing operations the value of stimuli as a reinforcer is decreased (Miltenberger 2016). A SD indicates that reinforcement is available while MO’s alter the effectiveness as a reinforcer at a given time. Four-term contingency: MO: It is 5pm and Shannon has not eaten since 7:30 am, so has been. SD: She sees her mom has some food, Behavior: Shannon asks her mom for a bite of food Consequence: She receives food from her mother. MO: The deprivation from food made food as a reinforcer more valuable SD: Shannon knew from past experiences that if she sees her mother with food, that reinforcement for the behavior of asking for food is available. Behavior: Asking for food Consequence: Hunger is removed. From what I have learned about MO’s behavior analysts can contrive these to make responses occur more or less frequently. If you provide someone with noncontingent attention throughout the day, they are less likely to engage in attention seeking behaviors to gain that reinforcement. If you withhold a stimulus, a response that is reinforced by this stimulus may increase due to deprivation. Jasmine Carter ABA References: Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson. Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. discussion 2 Motivating operations (MO) and Discriminative Stimuli (SD) have similarities and also differences. Some of the similarities that occur before a behavior and alter the frequency of a behavior (Cooper et al., 2020). They are also both known as operant variables. Some differences are that motivating operations alter the value of a stimulus as a reinforcer which makes it more or less likely to occur (Miltenberger, 2016). Motivating operations also evokes behavior when the reinforcer is more valuable and abates behavior when the reinforcer is less valuable (Miltenberger, 2016). Behavior that is evoked is known as establishing operation and behavior that is abated is known as abolishing operation (Miltenberger, 2016). An example of MO would be: I have a stomachache after being Mexican food. My mom reaches in the cabinet and gives me Pepto-Bismol. I asked for some Pepto-Bismol and drink it. The stomachache subsides. In this example, the MO is the stomachache. The value of Pepto-Bismol is altered because of the stomachache. Without a stomachache Pepto would not be valuable. The SD is my mom reaches in the cabinet for Pepto which causes me to ask for it and drink it. Behavior analysts can contrive MOs to change behavior by learning what motivates an individual or what they like in order to target behavior. For example, if you are swinging a child and they are laughing smiling and having fun, you can stop swinging and have them request “more” since they are motivated for this item. Michele Roberts References: Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Miltenberger, R.G. (2016). Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures. Cengage Learning. For more information on Frequency of Behavior read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_domain
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