Enlightenment Theories of Civilization

Question 1: Reading A (Secondary) – Climate and CivilisationWhat role did climate play in Enlightenment theories of civilisation? What were some of the assumptions and prejudices implicit in these theories?How were the connections between climate and civilisation affected by the process of European colonisation?What do Enlightenment understandings of climate reveal about how European people during this time viewed the relationship betweennature and humanity?Question 2: Reading B (Primary) – MontesquieuCharles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) was a prominent French intellectual who wrote extensively about theories of social and political organisation.What did you find most strange, surprising, shocking or interesting about Montesquieu’s writings on climate, nature and morality?In what ways did Montesquieu believe that climate influenced human life and conduct? To what extent did he view people as victims of their physical environment?How did Montesquieu’s understandings of climate inform his notion of the differences between southern and northern European people?How did they justify Enlightenment prejudices regarding the supposed superiority of European people?Question 3: Reading C (Primary) – Forster, ObservationsJohann Reinhold Forster was the naturalist on Captain James Cook’s second voyage to the South Pacific (1772-75). During this famous Enlightenment expedition, the voyagers visited a number of Islands in the South Pacific as well as Antarctica and New Zealand.What did Forster find of interest about the climates of the places he visited? What were some of the conclusions he drew?How were Forster’s encounters with the ‘New World’ and its peoples informed by Enlightenment theories of the relationship between climate and civilisation? To what extent did Forster challenge OR reinforce these theories?

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