Communicable Disease

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Communicable Disease

Communicable Disease

Write a paper (2,300 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website.

Communicable Disease Selection

Choose one communicable disease from the following list:

  1. Chickenpox
  2. Tuberculosis
  3. Influenza
  4. Mononucleosis
  5. Hepatitis B
  6. HIV
  7. Ebola
  8. Measles
  9. Polio
  10. Influenza

Epidemiology Paper Requirements

Address the following:

  1. Describe the communicable      disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment)      and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and      prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about      reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
  2. Describe the determinants of      health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this      disease.
  3. Discuss the epidemiologic      triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected.      Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and      environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or      notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
  4. Explain the role of the      community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collecting, data      analysis, and follow-up).
  5. Identify at least one national      agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and      describe how the organization(s) contributes to resolving or reducing the      impact of disease.
  6. Discuss a global implication of      the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this      disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.



communicable disease is one that spreads from person to person or animal to animal. 
Communicable diseases are sometimes referred to as “infectious” or “transmissible” diseases.
Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists.
After being infected by the pathogen, person may acquire communicable disease. 
This could happen as result of:
contact with contaminated fluids, such as blood, mucus, or saliva breathing infected droplets from another person’s cough or sneeze receiving bite from pathogen-carrying animal or bug drinking polluted water or foods
When pathogen enters person’s body, it begins to replicate. 
After that, the person may start to suffer symptoms.
Some symptoms are caused by the infection causing damage to the body’s cells. 
Others are caused by the immune system’s reaction to the infection.
Symptoms of communicable infections are usually modest and disappear after few days. 
Some, on the other hand, can be dangerous and even life-threatening.


Symptoms and types
Viruses, bacteria, fungus, and protists are the four basic types of pathogens that cause infection.
Viruses are microscopic pathogens that carry genetic material. 
They lack the intricate structure of cell, unlike other diseases. 
They must enter the cells of other living beings in order to reproduce. 
They employ the cell’s machinery to duplicate themselves once inside.


Viruses that are different include:
Rhinoviruses The common cold is caused by group of viruses known as rhinoviruses. 
cold can cause the following symptoms:
painful throat and stuffy or runny nose
person can contract rhinovirus by inhaling contaminated droplets from another person’s cough or sneeze.
Rhinoviruses are transferred by persons touching their nose, eyes, or mouth after coming into contact with virus-infected things or surfaces.
Infections of the respiratory system are caused by influenza viruses. 
The following are some examples of possible symptoms:
Chills or fever
headaches muscle or body aches fatigue stuffy or runny nose sore throat cough headaches muscle or body ache
Influenza viruses can be caught in the same way as rhinoviruses can.
HIV attacks the host’s immune system. 
As result, the person is more susceptible to various infections and disorders.
HIV can be contracted by coming into touch with HIV-infected blood or other bodily fluids.
HIV symptoms can appear gradually and in stages. 
They may include the following:
Fever, chills, rash, mouth sores, sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes are all symptoms of the flu.
sweating during night
tiredness muscle pains


An HIV test is the only method to know for sure if someone has HIV.
Although there is no cure for HIV, drugs can assist to control the virus. 
HIV can progress to AIDS if it is not treated.
Bacteria Bacteria are single-celled, tiny creatures. 
They can be found in practically every ecosystem on the planet, including the human body.


Many bacteria are harmless, and some even aid in the proper functioning of the body. 
Bacteria, on the other hand, can create illnesses that harm the body.


The following are some examples of bacterial infections:
Salmonella and E. coli are bacteria that cause food poisoning.


Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are two bacteria that can infect the gastrointestinal tract.


They are spread by eating infected foods including raw meats and unwashed fruits and vegetables.


The following are some of the symptoms of these infections:


cramps in the stomach


diarrhea sfever sheadache




Tuberculosis (TB) is bacterial infection that affects the lungs principally. 
It may result in the following signs and symptoms:


cough that has lasted longer than three weeks


decrease in appetite


Weight loss that is unintentional


fever schills


sweating during night


Inhaling small droplets or “aerosols” from person with tuberculosis’ cough or sneeze might cause infection. 
The American Lung Association, on the other hand, claims that while tuberculosis is communicable, it is not easily passed from person to person.


Fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, are type of organism. 
There are millions of different fungus, but only about 300 of them cause serious sickness.


Fungal infections can affect any part of the body, although the skin and mucous membranes are the most usually affected. 
The following are some examples of fungal infections:




Ringworm is common fungal skin illness. 
red or silver ring-shaped rash is the most common ringworm symptom. 
It could be scaly, dry, or irritating.


Through close touch with ringworm-infected person, people can develop ringworm in the following ways. 
They can also get it if they share towels, beds, or other personal belongings with someone who has ringworm.


Ringworm can spread to other places of the body if not treated.


Athlete’s foot is condition that affects athletes.


Athlete’s foot is fungal infection of the feet’s skin. 
Between the toes, it usually creates uncomfortable or itchy white spots.


Athletes’ foot can be contracted by coming into direct contact with someone who has the fungus or by touching surfaces that have been in contact with the fungus.


Athlete’s foot, for example, can be contracted by walking barefoot in locker rooms, showers, or swimming pools.


Protists are microscopic organisms that are usually made up of just one cell.


Some protists are parasitic, which means they live on or inside another organism and feed off of its nutrients. 
Parasitic protists are known to cause variety of ailments.


Malaria is tropical disease caused by the protist Plasmodium. 
Mosquito bites can spread the parasite from person to person.


Symptoms of malaria include:


chills and fever




vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches


Malaria can be fatal if it is not treated properly.


What can be done to avoid transmission?


Following the procedures below can help people lower their risk of receiving or transferring disease-causing pathogens:


avoiding eating bad food avoiding touching wild animals washing their hands thoroughly and routinely sanitizing surfaces at home, especially doorknobs and food areas maintaining proper hygiene when preparing and handling food avoiding touching wild animals


vaccines that are available


Antimalarial drugs should be taken while going to areas where malaria is danger.
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