Celegans Parasitology Lab Report
We were investigating the toxic effects of heavy metals on the wild-type worm and the adr-2 mutant, which is more sensitive to toxins
please refer to the attached documents
no plagiarism please.
Lab Report Guidelines for the Virtual C. elegans Investigation
The five sections of a lab report are outlined below. For more detail on writing and data preparation see A Short Guide to Writing about Biology by Jan A. Pechenik.
The introduction should provide all the relevant background for the investigation and discuss observations that led to the formation of the hypothesis being tested. A brief statement summarizing the experiment helps the reader to identify the independent and dependent variables. Relevant results reported from other studies are cited here. All species names must be in italics and spelt in full on first use and in titles: e.g. Escherichia coli, then E. coli on all subsequent uses. Maximum of 1-2 paragraphs.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
This section usually gives a brief description of the techniques, instruments, sampling schemes, and study sites. You should be concise, yet provide enough detail to allow someone else to conduct a similar study. Common, widely used techniques (e.g. how to operate a microscope) should not be described. Describe how you conducted the study and include variables that were controlled (i.e. factors that are kept the same between treatments so that any differences in the dependent variable between treatments can be attributed to the change in the independent variable). Report methods in past tense (e.g. “we measured”). Do not just copy the protocol, which is a list of instructions, in the present tense.
This lab is different because it was conducted remotely. It is okay to say just something like:“The wild-type and mutant strain worms were prepared by our instructor and suspended in either control solution, CuSO4, CdCl2, ZnSO4, or river water obtained from the Potomac River at Belle Haven Marina, Alexandria VA. The number of thrashes made by a single adult worm in 30 seconds, at 0, 2 and 4 mins exposure to each solution, was counted by examining video footage of each timepoint”. If you wish, you can still write a full Materials & Methods by reading the protocol.
Results are the centerpiece of any report and are typically summarized as graphs, tables, photographs, drawings and diagrams, along with written statements of the major trends. The results should summarize trends that relate directly to your hypotheses. Figures and tables should stand alone and tell a complete story and so must have explanatory legends or footnotes. Use the fewest figures and tables needed to tell the story – do not present the same data in both a figure and a table. Avoid interpreting the data in this section.
Tables often contain statistical summaries, while Graphs are appropriate when several measurements need to be compared simultaneously. The independent variable is usually plotted along the X-axis and the dependent along the Y-axis. A graph must have a title and labels both axes, with the units of measurement indicated. All figures and tables must be summarized, so all figures and tables must be referred to in the text. Remember, experiments were conducted in the past (“we found”), but use the present tense to describe how data are presented in the paper (e.g. “data are summarized in Table 1). Results of statistical tests are often summarized in written statements. Only use the term “significant” for statistically significant. If you prepare your tables & figures carefully, the results can usually be presented in 1-2 paragraphs
In the Discussion, you will describe how the reported results support your final conclusion. As part of the discussion, write a few paragraphs that address the following questions:
• Does the data support your hypothesis?
• If you reject your hypothesis, what may have caused the differences observed?
• Discuss other possible alternative explanations, experimental design flaws, or incorrect assumptions?
• How confident are you about your conclusions? How might you further test these explanations?
• How does your data fit into the bigger picture? Try to make some real-world connections.
Do not be afraid to speculate in this section (but make sure it is clear to the reader what is speculation and what is not). No single scientific study is definitive. Thoughtful speculation is a key ingredient in the scientific process! Remember, a hypothesis is only a possible explanation and that your conclusion may be to reject or not to reject. Rejecting your hypothesis does not mean the experiment has failed. The purpose of a scientific experiment is to investigate an unknown phenomenon and regardless of the outcome, science is advanced. You should, however, consider whether the experimental design adequately tests the hypothesis. If the experimental design is sound, then you can be confident about conclusions you make from the data.
A good lab report has at least two primary sources (journal articles) and one secondary source (e.g. a textbook). Avoid websites as they are not subject to Peer Review. If you must use a website, use a reputable source, such as www.cdc.gov, www.nih.gov, www.who.int. Remember, any statement of fact must be backed up by a reference.
A full list of all literature referred to in the paper must be included at the end of your paper, APA style – see: www.owl.english.purdue.edu for formatting.