Assignment: Research On Two Disorders
Assignment: Research On Two Disorders
For Week 3, you developed an Annotated Bibliography of research on two disorders. For this assignment you will pick one of the disorders and write a term paper on that disorder. Your paper should address information on the following areas:
- Describe the origins or history of the mental disorders.
- Describe the psychological theory or theories that relate to the mental disorders especially in the areas of diagnosis and treatment.
- Describe the difference if any in age of onset and diagnostic criteria based on gender.
- Explain the potential impact of the mental disorders on the individual and his or her family.
- Explain the social perceptions of the mental disorders from stigma to advocacy.
The paper should adhere to the following guidelines:
- For the main sections it should have a:
- Title page
- Literature review
- Reference page(s)
Please see the assignment template for details on each section.Submit your paper in a Word document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.Name your document PSY2010_W5_Project_lastname_firstname.
What scientists do know definitively is that environmental factors play a significant role in the development of mental health conditions. These include everything from stress to poor nutrition to substance abuse, death, divorce, neglect and family life.
A genetic predisposition to mental illness coupled with environmental factors can increase the chances a child or adult will exhibit symptoms, Mordecai said. He cited a groundbreaking study conducted in the mid-’90s by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Kaiser Permanente, called the . It’s one of the largest investigations of the impact of childhood abuse and neglect on later-life health and well-being, and is “still quite relevant,” he explained.
From 1995 to 1997, researchers surveyed more than 17,000 people about their childhood experiences — including physical, mental and sexual abuse — and their current health status and behaviors.
“What they found was very, very striking — a direct correlation between a number of those events these people had as children and negative health outcomes as a result,” Mordecai explained.
The study showed that as the number of “ACEs” increases, so does the risk of developing a variety of health issues, including mental health conditions like depression or risk of suicide.
Chronic stress and biological factors combined may also play a role.
Another scientific model, known as the stress-diathesis model, attempts to explain the biological relationship between someone’s predisposition for a mental health condition and “major or ongoing stressors,” said , an assistant professor and faculty member in the clinical mental health counseling program at Lynn University. The model says that the combination of chronic stressors like finances, work, academics, marital problems, or health and family issues, and a genetic predisposition to a mental health disorder can actually increase your likelihood of developing a mental illness.
Poverty in particular has been linked to an increased risk of mental illness. Children who than their wealthier peers, according to a 2016 paper published in Molecular Psychiatry. Dan Notterman, one of the study’s authors and a molecular biologist at Princeton University, also conducted his own research that found that telomeres — the DNA sequence at the end of certain chromosomes — , possibly because of stressors like poor nutrition, for example. The shorter telomeres can lead to poor general health.
Even identical twins don’t share the same predisposed risk.
Just because you’re predisposed to a mental health condition and experience an ongoing stressor doesn’t mean you’ll end up with a mental illness, Sperry said. Every person is different ― even twins with similar DNA structure.
“People do respond differently to the same stressor,” Sperry said. “In two twins who have the same genetic DNA, the expression of depression may not happen in one of them. One may not develop the psychiatric disorder that’s in their family tree [even though] they may both go through the same stressor.”
“People do respond differently to the same stressor.”– JONATHAN SPERRY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN THE CLINICAL MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING PROGRAM AT LYNN UNIVERSITY
A 2011 study published by King’s College London found that even though identical twins are genetically the same, “ in the onset of the diseases,” Science Daily reported. The study looked specifically at schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, where heritability is estimated to be 70 percent. Because only one person in each-twin pair had schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, genetic causes were ruled out.
So, what does it all mean?
There’s research that suggests if a family member has a mental illness, , Mordecai said. However, you may never exhibit symptoms if you didn’t experience any traumatic events as a child, your everyday life is relatively stress-free and you’re in a supportive environment.
But it’s also important to note that mental health conditions can develop even if there is no family history. Mental health issues are complex, so it’s vital to recognize the signs like withdrawal, excessive rumination, extreme anxiety, thoughts of self harm, periods of mania and more.
If you think you may have a mental illness, talk with your doctor. Whatever the outcome is, there’s hope. Whether you’re living with a mental illness or think you may be at risk, know that you’re not alone and treatment is available.