Replying to a Discussion

Reply to this discussionYou must use at least two evidence-based referencesPart oneExpected changes of aging-related to the heartEven without disease presence, the body undergoes changes in its function and structure as one becomes old. Aging becomes an independent risk factor when it comes to cardiovascular disease as the effects of aging become very diverse and as they contribute to altering the function of the whole cardiovascular system. As one gets old, structural changes in aging start developing, which involve degeneration progressive of the cardiac structures, including the valves fibrotic changes infiltration having amyloid and continued elasticity loss. The pumping heart capacity might reduce with age caused by a variety of changes, which are caused by changes in heart muscle functioning and the dramatic structure of the heart (Jugdutt, 2014).Aging causes an increase in the heart’s mass for most of the parts due to the increased myocyte average size causing the total number of myocardial cells to decrease. The valvular circumference increase due to aging in all four cardiac valves, which include the bicuspid valve, aortic valve semilunar, and tricuspid valve. Greater changes occur to the valve between the aorta and the left ventricle as calcific deposits frequently become present. These changes to the valves cause much dysfunctioning, and severe valvular aortic stenosis and clinical murmurs are frequently detected (Gerstenblith, 2007).The nucleus which contains the DNA might become larger and, in most cases, tend to show membrane invagination. There is an alteration in the shape, size, Cristal pattern, and matrix density, which reduces functionality on these surfaces. Degeneration and fatty infiltration are marked on the cytoplasm and accumulation of pigments such as lipofuscin. The combination of age-related changes results in decreased cellular activities, including protein synthesis and altered homeostasis (Cohn & Francis, 2012).ReferencesCohn, J. N., & Francis, G. S. (2012). Stage B, a precursor of heart failure, an issue of heart failure clinics – E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.Gerstenblith, G. (2007). Cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Springer Science & Business Media.Jugdutt, B. I. (2014). Aging and heart failure: Mechanisms and management. Springer Science & Business Media.

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